SOME OTHER ON THE SPANISH INQUISITION…!
SEEMS SIMILAR TO CANADA TODAY and when Ancient Theology and Evolution are confronted by the BOOK OF PURE LOGIC !
They are doing it today: SEatle [USA] Catholic hospital asked of what religion i was…!
Canadian hospitals have infiltrated defendants of old religions, including protestants…!
Venezuela is Catholic and will not have directly my book either…!
LEST WE FORGET
The Spanish Inquisition, however, properly begins with the reign of Ferdinand the Catholic and Isabella. The Catholic faith was then endangered by pseudo converts from Judaism (Marranos) and Mohammedanism (Moriscos). On 1 November, 1478, Sixtus IV empowered the Catholic sovereigns to set up the Inquisition.
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In a Brief of Sixtus IV of 29 January 1482, they were blamed for having, upon the alleged authority of papal Briefs, unjustly imprisoned many people, subjected them to cruel tortures, declared them false believers, and sequestrated the property of the executed. They were at first admonished to act only in conjunction with, the bishops, and finally were threatened with deposition, and would indeed have been deposed had not Their Majesties interceded for them. Fray Tomás Torquemada (b. at Valladolid In 1420, d. at Avila, 16 September, 1498) was the true organizer of the Spanish Inquisition. At the solicitation of their Spanish Majesties (Paramo, II, tit. ii, c, iii, n. 9) Sixtus IV bestowed on Torquemada the office of grand inquisitor, the institution of which indicates a decided advance in the development of the Spanish Inquisition. Innocent VIII approved the act of his predecessor, and under date of 11 February, 1486, and 6 February, 1487, Torquemada was given dignity of grand inquisitor for the kingdoms of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Valencia, etc. The institution speedily ramified from Seville to Cordova, Jaen, Villareal, and Toledo, About 1538 there were nineteen courts, to which three were afterwards added in Spanish America (Mexico, Lima, and Cartagena). Attempts at introducing it into Italy failed, and the efforts to establish it in the Netherlands entailed disastrous consequences for the mother country. In Spain, however, it remained operative into the nineteenth century. Originally called into being against secret Judaism and secret Islam, it served to repel Protestantism in the sixteenth century, but was unable to expel French Rationalism and immorality of the eighteenth. King Joseph Bonaparte abrogated it in 1808, but it was reintroduced by Ferdinand VII in 1814 and approved by Pius VII on certain conditions, among others the abolition of torture. It was definitely abolished by the Revolution of 1820.
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Also, Please See:
The Spanish Inquisition
The Spanish Inquisition is known for the terror it caused the inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula. Although the Inquisition originally began to purify the nation from heretics, it came to have more materialistic, racial, and political motives, instead of just purification. The beginning of the Inquisition is generally credited to the reign of Ferdinand V and Isabella. In truth, it began before that time, and carried on long after Ferdinand and Isabella passed away. In order to better understand the Inquisition and the reasons behind it, it is necessary to first examine the events that led up to it.
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An anonymous Englishman writing about 1600 … shows how secrecy was used to create fear:
But if the accused does not sifficientlie justifie himself, he is condemned to torture. And with his Curate he is constrained to goe, through a place virie hidious, to a rome underground, where he findeth the Judges set. There is ye Executioner, covered with a long black linen robe verie straight like a sacke, having his head and face covered with a blacke hoode having but two holes before his eies–this done to amaze the Patient, as if a devil came to punish his misdeeds. If he confesse nothing, they sometimes martyre him more than two howers.
Article XVIII of Torquemada’s Copilacion de las instructiones del Officio de la Santa Inquisicion states that ‘when any person is put to the torture the inquisitors and the ordinary should be present–or, at least, some of them. But when this is for any reason impossible, then the person entrusted to question should be a learned faithful man.
In 1568, a woman was arrested on the grounds of not eating pork and changing her linen on Saturdays; these innocous activities had led to an accusation of her being jewish. This is the record of her torture:
She was ordered to be placed on the potro. She said, ‘Se`nores, why will you not tell me what I have to say? Se`nor, put me on the ground–have I not said that I did it all?’ She was told to tell it. She said, ‘I don’t remember–take me away–I did what the witnesses say.’ She said, ‘Se`nor, as I have told you, I do not know for certain. I have said that I did all that the witnesses say. Se`nores, release me, for I do not remember it.’ She was told to tell it. She said, ‘Se`nores, it does not help me to say that I did it and I have admitted that what I have done has brought me to this suffering–se`nor, you know the truth–se`nores, for God’s sake have mercy on me. Oh, Se`nor, take these things from my arms–Se`nor, release me, they are killing me.’ She was tied on the potro with the cords, she was admonished to tell the truth, and the garrotes were ordered to be tightened. She said, ‘Se`nores, do you not see how these people are killing me? I did it–for God’s sake let me go,’
William Lightgow’s first-person account is equally terrifying, but with a different timbre hightenen by his obvious hatred for his tormentors. These extracts will give some idea of the working methods of the tortures, with Lightgow’s comments and criticism omitted:
I was by the executioner stripped to the skin, brought to the rack, and then mounted by him on the top of it, where soon after I was hung by the bare shoulders with two small cords, which went under both my arms, running on two rings of iron that were fixed in the wall above my head. Thus being hoisted to the appointed height, the tormentor descended below, and drawing down my legs, through the two sides of the three-planked rack, he tied a cord about each of my ankles and then ascending upon the rack he drew the cords upward, and bending forward with main force my two knees against the two planks, the sinews of my hams burst asunder, and the lids of my knee being crushed, and the cords made fast, I hung so demained for a large hour.
. . . Then the tormentor, laying the right arme above the left, and the crown upmost, did cast a cord over both arms seven distant times: and then lying down upon his back, and setting both his feet on my hollow pinched belly, he charged and drew violently with his hands, making my womb suffer the force of his feet, till the seven several cords combined in one place of my arme (and cutting the crown, sinews, and flesh to their bare bone) did pull in my fingers close to the palm of my hands; the left hand of which is lame so still and will be for ever.
. . . Then by comman of the Justice, was my trembling body laid above, and along, upon the face of the rack, with my head downward, inclosed within a circled hole; my belly upmost, and my heels upward toward the top of the rack, my legs and arms being drawn asunder, were fastened with pins and cords to both sides of the outward planks; for now I was to receive my main torments. . . .
Lithgow was then racked, and recounts the process with the same minute details of ropes and planks. When this was finished, he was subjected to the water torture:
Then the tormentor having charged the first passage above my body (making fast by a device each torture as they were multiplied), he went to an earthen jar standing full of water, a little beneath my head: from whence carrying a pot full of water, in the bottom whereof there was an incised hole, which being stopped by his thumb, till it came to my mouth, he did pout it in my belly (*about four pints); the first and second devices I gladly received, such was the scorching drought of my tormenting pain, and likewise I had drunk none for three days before. But afterward, at the third charge perceiving these measures of water to be inflicted upon me as tortures, O strangling tortures! I close my lips again-standing that eager crudelity. Whereat the Alcaide enraged, set my teeth asunder with a pair of iron cadges, detaining them there, at every several turn, both mainly and manually.
Auto de fe
The burnings took place within the auto de fe, and it was perhaps their spectacular nature that impressed them upon the minds of so many travellers who watched them. They usually took place on a feast day in the presence of king or nobles, and followed a public procession, a mass, a sermon and the reconciliation of sinners. The most celebrated autos de fe were held in the elegant Plaza Mayor, a square in the center of Madrid, in the presence of the King and his court. A contemporary description of the auto de fe of 1690 will illustrate the pomp, grandeur and excitement:
The officers of the Inquisition, preceded by trumpets, kettle-drums and their banner, marched on the 30th of May, in cavalcade, to the palace of the great square, where they declared by proclamation that on the 30th June the sentence of the prisoners would be put in execution. There had not been a spectable of this kind at Madrid for several years before, for which reason it was expected by the inhabitants with as much impatience as a day of the greatest festivity and triumph. When the day appointed arrived, a prodigious number of people appeared, dressed as splendid as their respective circumstances would admit. In the great square was raised a high scaffold; and thither, from seven in the morning until the evening, were brought criminals of both sexes; all the Inquisitons in the kingdom sending their prisoners to Madrid. Twenty men and women out of these prisoners, with one renegade Mahometan, were ordered to be burned; fifty Jews and Jewesses, having never before been imprisoned, were sentenced to a long confinement, and to wear a yellow cap; and ten others, indicted for bigamy, withcraft and other crimes, were sentenced to be whipped and then sent to the galleys: these last wore large pasteboard caps, with inscriptions on them, having a halter about their necks, and torches in their hands. On this solemn occasion the whole court of Spain was present. The grand Inquisitor’s chair was placed in a sort of tribunal far above that of the King. The nobles here acted the part of the sheriff’s officers in England, leading such criminals as were to be burned, and holding them when fast bound with thick cords; the rest of the criminals were conducted by the familiars of the Inquisition.
At the place of execution there are so many stakes set as there are prisoners to be burned, a large quantity of dry furze being set about them. The stakes of the Protestants, or, as the inquisitors call them, the professed, are about four yards high, and have each a small board, whereon the prisoner is seated within half a yard of the top. The professed then go up a ladder betwix two priests, who attend them the whole day of execution. When they come even with the aforementioned board, they turn about to the people, and the priests spend near a quarter of an hour in exhorting them to be reconciled to the seed of Rome. On their refusing, the priests come down, and the executioner ascending, turns the professed from off the ladder upon the seat, chains their bodies close to the stakes, and leaves them. Then the priests go up a second time to renew their exhortations; and if they find them ineffectual, usually tell them at parting, that ‘they leave them to the Devil, who is standing at their elbow ready to receive their souls, and carry them with him into the flames of hell-fire, as soon as they are out of their bodies.’ A general shout is then raised, and when the priests get off the ladder, the universal cry is: ‘Let the dogs’ beards be made!’ (which implies, singe their beards). This is accordingly performed by means of flaming furzes, thrust against their faces with long poles. This barbarity is repeated till their faces are burnt, and is accompanied with loud acclamations. Fire is then set to the furzes, and the criminals are consumed.
The intreopidity of the twenty-one men and women in suffering the horrid death was truly astonishing; some thrust their hands and feet into the flames with the most dauntless fortitude; and all of them yielded to their fate with such resolution that many of the amazed spectators lamented that such heroic souls had not been more enlightened. The near situation of the king to the criminals rendered their dying groans very audible to him; he could not, however, be absent from this dreadful scene, as it is esteemed a religious one, and his coronation oath obliges him to give a sanction by his presence to all the acts of the tribunal.
The Spanish Inquisition Caused great suffering, thousands of deaths, and serious economic and cultural effects on the history of Spain. But it must not be forgotten that Spain enjoyed her greatest moment of power and prestige during the centuries in which the Inquisition was at full spate. The colonies were established, literature, music and painting flourished–especially from about 1550 to 1700–and modern Spain was created.
Inquisition, The Hammer of Heresy/1803857
LEST WE FORGET
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Spanish: Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was a tribunal established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, and to replace the Medieval Inquisition which was under Papal control. The Inquisition was originally intended in large part to ensure the orthodoxy of those who converted from Judaism and Islam. This regulation of the faith of the newly converted was intensified after the royal decrees issued in 1492 and 1501 ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave.
Various motives have been proposed for the monarchs’ decision to fund the Inquisition such as increasing political authority, weakening opposition, suppressing conversos, profiting from confiscation of the property of convicted heretics, reducing social tensions and protecting the kingdom from the danger of a fifth column.
The body was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy. It was not definitively abolished until 1834, during the reign of Isabella II, after a period of declining influence in the previous century.
Included under the rubric of heretical propositions were verbal offences, from outright blasphemy to questionable statements regarding religious beliefs, from issues of sexual morality, to misbehaviour of the clergy. Many were brought to trial for affirming that simple fornication (sex between unmarried persons) was not a sin or for putting in doubt different aspects of Christian faith such as Transubstantiation or the virginity of Mary. Also, members of the clergy itself were occasionally accused of heretical propositions. These offences rarely lead to severe penalties.
…cANADA TODAY defines hate speech and blasphemy also, which is ancient and inquisitory…!
…Canada’s mental health public control for most anything, is ” a civil inquisition court, with “medicine and confinement torture”, no freedom of speech, with no timely defense “…!
…WHEN THEY FEEL LOST and cannot find another way of defense or to stay in GOvernment or Academia, “they go inquisitionistic”…!